The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-dependent proton pumps that operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits relative to subunit a within the integral V0 domain. In vivo dissociation of the V-ATPase (an important regulatory mechanism) generates a V0 domain that does not passively conduct protons. EM analysis indicates that the N-terminal domain of subunit a approaches the rotary subunits in free V0, suggesting a possible mechanism of silencing passive proton transport. To test the hypothesis that the N-terminal domain inhibits passive proton flux by preventing rotation of the proteolipid ring in free V0, factor Xa cleavage sites were introduced between the N- and C-terminal domains of subunit a (the Vph1p isoform in yeast) to allow its removal in vitro after isolation of vacuolar membranes. The mutant Vph1p gave rise to a partially uncoupled V-ATPase complex. Cleavage with factor Xa led to further loss of coupling of proton transport and ATP hydrolysis. Removal of the N-terminal domain by cleavage with factor Xa and treatment with KNO3 and MgATP did not, however, lead to an increase in passive proton conductance by free V0, suggesting that removal of the N-terminal domain is not sufficient to facilitate passive proton conductance through V0. Photoactivated cross-linking using the cysteine reagent maleimido benzophenone and single cysteine mutants of subunit a demonstrated the proximity of specific sites within the N-terminal domain and subunits E and G of the peripheral stalk. These results suggest that a localized region of the N-terminal domain (residues 347-369) is important in anchoring the peripheral stator in V1V0.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|