Reference: Chamilos G, et al. (2008) Genomewide Screening for Genes Associated with Gliotoxin Resistance and Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52(4):1325-9

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Abstract


Gliotoxin (GT) is a secondary fungal metabolite with pleiotropic immunosuppressive properties that have been implicated in Aspergillus virulence. However, the mechanisms of GT cytotoxicity and its molecular targets in eukaryotic cells have not been fully characterized. We screened a haploid library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single gene deletion mutants (4,787-Euroscarf) to identify non-essential genes associated with GT increased resistance (GT-IR) and sensitivity (GT-IS). The susceptibility of the wild-type parental strain BY4741 to GT was initially assessed by broth microdilution methods using different media. GT-IR and GT-IS were defined as a four-fold increase or decrease, respectively, in minimal inhibitory concentration and was additionally confirmed by susceptibility testing on agar YPD plates. The specificity of GT-IR and GT-IS mutants exhibiting normal growth compared to the wild-type strain was further tested in studies of their susceptibility to conventional antifungal agents, cycloheximide and H2O2. GT-IR (n=10) was associated with disruption of genes acting in general metabolism (OPI1, SNF1, IFA38), mitochondrial function (RTG2), DNA-damage repair (RAD18), and vesicular transport (APL2) and genes of unknown function (YGL235W, YOR345C, YLR456W, YGL072C). Disruption of 3 genes encoding transsulfuration (CYS3), mitochondrial function (MEF2), and unknown function (YKL037W) led to GT-IS. Specificity for GT-IR and GT-IS was observed in all mutants. Importantly, the majority (69%) of genes implicated in GT-IR (6/10) and GT-IS (2/3) have human homologues. We identified novel Saccharomyces genes specifically implicated in GT-IR or GT-IS. Because most of these genes are evolutionarily conserved, further characterization of their function could improve our understanding of GT cytotoxicity mechanisms in humans.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Chamilos G, Lewis RE, Lamaris GA, Albert ND, Kontoyiannis DP
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