In addition to well-defined DNA repair pathways, all living organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid cell death caused by replication fork collapse at a site where replication is blocked due to disruptive covalent modifications of DNA. The term DNA damage tolerance (DDT) has been employed loosely to include a collection of mechanisms by which cells survive replication-blocking lesions with or without associated genomic instability. Recent genetic analyses indicate that DDT in eukaryotes, from yeast to human, consists of two parallel pathways with one being error-free and another highly mutagenic. Interestingly, in budding yeast, these two pathways are mediated by sequential modifications of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by two ubiquitination complexes Rad6-Rad18 and Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5. Damage-induced monoubiquitination of PCNA by Rad6-Rad18 promotes translesion synthesis (TLS) with increased mutagenesis, while subsequent polyubiquitination of PCNA at the same K164 residue by Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5 promotes error-free lesion bypass. Data obtained from recent studies suggest that the above mechanisms are conserved in higher eukaryotes. In particular, mammals contain multiple specialized TLS polymerases. Defects in one of the TLS polymerases have been linked to genomic instability and cancer.Cell Research advance online publication 24 December 2007; doi: 10.1038/cr.2007.114.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|