We present here the first evidence, obtained by the use of small-angle X-ray scattering, of the solution structures of chimeras constructed from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sc) and chicken (Gallus gallus, Gg) calmodulin (CaM). The chimeric proteins used in this study are Sc(1-129)/Gg(130-148), Sc(1-128)/Gg(129-148), Sc(1-87)/Gg(88-148), and Sc(1-72)/Gg(73-148) CaMs, in which Sc(1-)(n)() and Gg(()(n)(+1)-148) descend from yeast and chicken CaM in the chimeric proteins, respectively. Under the Ca(2+)-saturated condition, the solution structure of Sc(1-128)/Gg(129-148) CaM has a dumbbell-like shape which is characteristic of vertebrate-type CaM, while that of Sc(1-129)/Gg(130-148) CaM takes an intermediate structure between the dumbbell-like shape and a compact globular shape. The results provide the direct evidence that the replacement of Asp(129) with Ser(129) induces an interaction between two lobes of Sc(1-129)/Gg(130-148) CaM and brings them close together. It implies that a site interacting with the N-lobe is induced in the C-lobe, although site IV that is unable to bind Ca(2+) hinders the ability of the C-lobe to undergo the conformational change to the full open state. In the presence of both Ca(2+) and a peptide synthesized to mimic the CaM binding domain on myosin light chain kinase, MLCK-22p, the solution structures of these chimeric CaMs take a similar compact globular shape but their interactions are quite different. The solution structure and interactions of Sc(1-72)/Gg(73-148) CaM are similar to those of Sc(1-87)/Gg(88-148) CaM. The structure of Sc(1-87)/Gg(88-148) CaM is similar to that of Sc(1-128)/Gg(129-148) CaM, but their interactions are different. The result indicates that the replacement of Glu(119) with Ala(119) has a critical effect on their interactions. Thus, the functional differences among these chimeric CaMs, which have been reported previously [Nakashima, K., et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 5602-5610], have been interpreted on the basis of the structures and interactions.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|