Glutathione reductase (GR) carries out the enzymatic reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to its reduced form (GSH) at the expense of the reducing power of NADPH. Previous studies have shown that GR from several species is progressively inactivated in the presence of NADPH, but that the mechanism of inactivation (especially in the presence of metals) has not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the involvement of iron ions in the inactivation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) GR in the presence of NADPH. Even in the absence of added iron, inactivation of GR was partly blocked by the iron chelators, deferoxamine and ortho-phenanthroline, suggesting the involvement of trace amounts of contaminating iron in the mechanism of inhibition. Exogenously added antioxidants including ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide and 2-deoxyribose did not protect GR against NADPH-induced inactivation, whilst addition of exogenous Fe(II) (but not Fe(III)) potentiated the inactivation. Moreover, removal of oxygen from the medium led to increased inhibition of GR, whereas pre-incubation of the Fe(II)-containing medium for 30 min under normoxic conditions prior to the addition of GR abolished the enzyme inactivation by NADPH. Under these pre-incubation conditions, Fe(II) is fully oxidized to Fe(III) within 1 min. Furthermore, GR that had been previously inactivated in the presence of Fe(II) plus NADPH could be partially reactivated by treatment with ortho-phenanthroline and deferoxamine. In contrast, Fe(III) had no effect on GR reactivation. Together, these results indicate that yeast GR is inactivated by a reductive mechanism mediated by NADPH and Fe(II). According to this mechanism, GR is diverted from its normal redox cycling by the generation of an inactive reduced enzyme form in which both the FAD and thiol groups at the active site are likely in a reduced state.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|