The kinesin-binding site on the microtubule has not been identified because of the technical difficulties involved in the mutant analyses of tubulin. Exploiting the budding yeast expression system, we succeeded in replacing the negatively charged residues in the alpha-helix 12 of beta-tubulin with alanine and analyzed their effect on kinesin-microtubule interaction in vitro. The microtubule gliding assay showed that the affinity of the microtubules for kinesin was significantly reduced in E410A, D417A, and E421A, but not in E412A mutant. The unbinding force measurement revealed that in the former three mutants, the kinesin-microtubule interaction in the adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate state (AMP-PNP state) became less stable when a load was imposed towards the microtubule minus end. In parallel with this decreased stability, the stall force of kinesin was reduced. Our results implicate residues E410, D417, and E421 as crucial for the kinesin-microtubule interaction in the strong binding state, thereby governing the size of kinesin stall force.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|