We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi and various cytoplasmic vesicles. The major physiological heavy metals transported are: iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenite and cadmium. The major subfamilies that comprise the highest number of transporters are Siderophore-Iron Transporters (SIT) and CT2 (conjugated ABC transporters). They transport heavy metals (iron or cadmium, respectively) conjugated to organic chelators such as siderophores or glutathione. Both subfamilies are considerably amplified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The pattern of expansion and restriction of the subfamilies during the evolution of the different species is highly variable. The phylogenetic trees of the major transporters subfamilies distinguish homogenous clusters of transporters suggesting that possible different physiological or mechanistic functions evolved independently. We also validated the use of the Hemiascomycetes heavy metal transporters for identification of orthologs transporters in the pathogenic Basidiomycetes Cryptococcus neoformans.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|