Posttranslational modification by the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) is emerging as an important regulator in many cellular processes, including genome integrity. In this study, we show that the kinetochore proteins Ndc10, Bir1, Ndc80, and Cep3, which mediate the attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules, are sumoylated substrates in budding yeast. Furthermore, we show that Ndc10, Bir1, and Cep3 but not Ndc80 are desumoylated upon exposure to nocodazole, highlighting the possibility of distinct roles for sumoylation in modulating kinetochore protein function and of a potential link between the sumoylation of kinetochore proteins and mitotic checkpoint function. We find that lysine to arginine mutations that eliminate the sumoylation of Ndc10 cause chromosome instability, mislocalization of Ndc10 from the mitotic spindle, abnormal anaphase spindles, and a loss of Bir1 sumoylation. These data suggest that sumoylation of Ndc10 and other kinetochore proteins play a critical role during the mitotic process.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|