Reference: Demasi M, et al. (2003) 20 S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsive to redox modifications and is S-glutathionylated. J Biol Chem 278(1):679-85

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Abstract


The 20 S proteasome core purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inhibited by reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), or the GSH precursor gamma-glutamylcysteine. Chymotrypsin-like activity was more affected by GSH than trypsin-like activity, whereas the peptidylglutamyl-hydrolyzing activity (caspase-like) was not inhibited by GSH. Cys-sulfenic acid formation in the 20 S core was demonstrated by spectral characterization of the Cys-S(O)-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole adduct, indicating that 20 S proteasome Cys residues might react with reduced sulfhydryls (GSH, Cys, and gamma-glutamylcysteine) through the oxidized Cys-sulfenic acid form. S-Glutahionylation of the 20 S core was demonstrated in vitro by GSH-biotin incorporation and by decreased alkylation with monobromobimane. Compounds such as N-ethylmaleimide (-S-sulfhydril H alkylating), dimedone (-SO sulfenic acid H reactant), or 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (either -SH or -SOH reactant) highly inhibited proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity. In vivo experiments revealed that 20 S proteasome extracted from H(2)O(2)-treated cells showed decreased chymotrypsin-like activity accompanied by S-glutathionylation as demonstrated by GSH release from the 20 S core after reduction with NaBH(4). Moreover, cells pretreated with H(2)O(2) showed decreased reductive capacity assessed by determination of the GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio and increased protein carbonyl levels. The present results indicate that at the physiological level the yeast 20 S proteasome is regulated by its sulfhydryl content, thereby coupling intracellular redox signaling to proteasome-mediated proteolysis.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Demasi M, Silva GM, Netto LE
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