Termination of replication forks at the natural termini of the rDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled in a sequence-specific and polar mode by the interaction of the Fob1p replication terminator protein with the tandem Ter sites located in the nontranscribed spacers. Here we show, by both 2D gel analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP), that there exists a second level of global control mediated by the intra-S-phase checkpoint protein complex of Tof1p and Csm3p that protect stalled forks at Ter sites against the activity of the Rrm3p helicase ("sweepase"). The sweepase tends to release arrested forks presumably by the transient displacement of the Ter-bound Fob1p. Consistent with this mechanism, very few replication forks were arrested at the natural replication termini in the absence of the two checkpoint proteins. In the absence of the Rrm3p helicase, there was a slight enhancement of fork arrest at the Ter sites. Simultaneous deletions of the TOF1 (or CSM3), and the RRM3 genes restored fork arrest by removing both the fork-releasing and fork-protection activities. Other genes such as MRC1, WSS1, and PSY2 that are also involved in the MRC1 checkpoint pathway were not involved in this global control. This observation suggests that Tof1p-Csm3p function differently from MRC1 and the other above-mentioned genes. This mechanism is not restricted to the natural Ter sites but was also observed at fork arrest caused by the meeting of a replication fork with transcription approaching from the opposite direction.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|