We described earlier a novel mode of regulation of Hsp104, a cytosolic chaperone directly involved in the refolding of heat-denatured proteins, and designated it delayed upregulation, or DUR. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown at the physiological temperature of 24 degrees C, preconditioned at 37 degrees C, and treated briefly at 50 degrees C were shifted back to 24 degrees C, Hsp104 expression was strongly induced after 2.5 h of recovery and returned back to normal after 5 h. Here we show that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones BiP/Kar2p and Lhs1p and the mitochondrial chaperone Hsp78 were also upregulated at the physiological temperature during recovery from thermal insult. The heat shock element (HSE) in the KAR2 promoter was found to be sufficient to drive DUR. The unfolded protein element could also evoke DUR, albeit weakly, in the absence of a functional HSE. BiP/Kar2p functions in ER translocation and assists protein folding. Here we found that the synthesis of new BiP/Kar2p molecules was negligible for more than an hour after the shift of the cells from 50 degrees C to 24 degrees C. Concomitantly, ER translocation was blocked, suggesting that preexisting BiP/Kar2p molecules or other necessary proteins were not functioning. Translocation resumed concomitantly with enhanced synthesis of BiP/Kar2p after 3 h of recovery, after which ER exit and protein secretion also resumed. For a unicellular organism like S. cerevisiae, conformational repair of denatured proteins is the sole survival strategy. Chaperones that refold proteins in the cytosol, ER, and mitochondria of S. cerevisiae appear to be subject to DUR to ensure survival after thermal insults.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|