The biological significance of recently described modifiable residues in the globular core of the bovine nucleosome remains elusive. We have mapped these modification sites onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae histones and used a genetic approach to probe their potential roles both in heterochromatic regions of the genome and in the DNA repair response. By mutating these residues to mimic their modified and unmodified states, we have generated a total of 39 alleles affecting 14 residues in histones H3 and H4. Remarkably, despite the apparent evolutionary pressure to conserve these near-invariant histone amino acid sequences, the vast majority of mutant alleles are viable. However, a subset of these variant proteins elicit an effect on transcriptional silencing both at the ribosomal DNA locus and at telomeres, suggesting that posttranslational modification(s) at these sites regulates formation and/or maintenance of heterochromatin. Furthermore, we provide direct mass spectrometry evidence for the existence of histone H3 K56 acetylation in yeast. We also show that substitutions at histone H4 K91, K59, S47, and R92 and histone H3 K56 and K115 lead to hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, linking the significance of the chemical identity of these modifiable residues to DNA metabolism. Finally, we allude to the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these modifications.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|