Reference: Ferreira ME, et al. (2005) The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, transporter genes, and azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Med Mycol 43 Suppl 1:S313-9

Reference Help

Abstract


The continuous use of triazoles can result in the development of drug resistance. Azole-resistant clinical isolates, spontaneous and induced mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus have been documented. The azoles block the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway by inhibiting the enzyme 14-alpha-demethylase, product of the CYP51. Fungal azole resistance involves both amino acid changes in the target site that alter drug-target interactions and those that decrease net azole accumulation. The reduced intracellular accumulation has also been correlated with overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporter genes of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) classes. About 20 genes are involved in the A. fumigatus ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. There are several duplicated genes in this pathway. Interestingly, erg3 and erg11 showed two copies in A. fumigatus. In general, Aspergillus spp. have proportionally more MFS transporter encoding genes than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. pombe, and Neurospora crassa. The drug H+ (12 and 14 spanners) sub-families are also proportionally greater than in the other species. Although the numbers of ABC transporter encoding genes are comparable, again the Aspergillus spp. have more ABC transporters related to multidrug permease than the other fungal species.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Review | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Ferreira ME, Colombo AL, Paulsen I, Ren Q, Wortman J, Huang J, Goldman MH, Goldman GH
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference