The mechanisms mediating responses to glycine withdrawal in budding yeast were studied using a genome-wide profiling approach. A striking pattern of repressed expression of genes with an enrichment for those involved in one-carbon metabolism and AMP biosynthesis was revealed. Sequence analysis of the promoters for the most severely repressed genes identified a conserved sequence, TGACTC, a known binding site for the transcription factors Gcn4p and Bas1p. Loss of BAS1 abolished or significantly reduced the repression of these genes in response to glycine removal but this phenotype was much less apparent in the absence of BAS2 or GCN4. Addition of a Bas1p-LexA fusion protein to a strain with a LexAop-LacZ fusion showed a strong glycine effect both in a BAS2 and a bas2 background. A Bas1p-VP16 fusion protein activated expression in a bas1bas2 strain but no glycine effect was observed while a Bas1p-Bas2p fusion protein activated expression to a lesser extent with a slight stimulation by glycine. These results suggest that glycine affects Bas1p activation of transcription rather than DNA binding and that Bas2p is not required for this affect. Glycine withdrawal repressed many of the same genes as addition of adenine, a process known to be dependent on Bas1p. However, the glycine response is independent of adenine repression, because glycine regulation occurs normally in ade strains. We did not see any difference in the degree of stimulation by glycine in the presence or absence of adenine even in Ade+ strains. Glycine regulation was also found to be dependent on an intact SHM2 gene, which encodes cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase. A reporter plasmid containing a DNA sequence from the GCV2 promoter which confers glycine regulation on heterologous genes was introduced into the yeast deletion set to screen for genes required for glycine regulation. A number of genes, including BAS1 were required for activation by glycine but only the SHM2 gene was required for repression in the absence of glycine. We also showed that regulation of the SHM2 promoter by glycine requires Bas1p but not Bas2p or Gcn4p using a beta-galactosidase reporter. The response of the promoter to glycine required an intact SHM2 gene but was restored in a shm2 strain by addition of formate to the medium.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|