Stannous chloride was found genotoxic in microbial test systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in one strain of Salmonella typhimurium and in the Mutoxitest of Escherichia coli. Five isogenic haploid yeast strains differing only in a particular repair-deficiency had the following ranking in Sn2+ -sensitivity: rad52delta>rad6delta>rad2delta>rad4delta>RAD, indicating a higher relevance of recombinogenic repair mechanisms than nucleotide excision in repair of Sn2+ -induced DNA damage. Sn2+ -treated cells formed aggregates that lead to gross overestimation of toxicity when not undone before diluting and plating. Reliable inactivation assays at exposure doses of 25-75 mM SnCl2 were achieved by de-clumping with either EDTA- or phosphate buffer. Sn2+ -induced reversion of the yeast his1-798, his1-208 and lys1-1 mutant alleles, in diploid and haploid cells, respectively, and putative frameshift mutagenesis (reversion of the hom3-10 allele) was observed. In diploid yeast, SnCl2 induced intra-genic mitotic recombination while inter-genic (reciprocal) recombination was very weak and not significant. Yeast cells of exponentially growing cultures were killed to about the same extend at 0.1% of SnCl2 than respective cells in stationary phase, suggesting a major involvement of physiological parameters of post-diauxic shift oxidative stress resistance in enhanced Sn2+ -tolerance. Superoxide dismutases, but not catalase, protected against SnCl2-induced reactive oxygen species as sod1delta had a three-fold higher sensitivity than the WT while the sod2delta mutant was only slightly more sensitive but conferred significant sensitivity increase in a sod1delta sod2delta double mutant. In the Salmonella reversion assay, SnCl2 did not induce mutations in strains TA97, TA98 or TA100, while a positive response was seen in strain TA102. SnCl2 induced a two-fold increase in mutation in the Mutoxitest strain IC203 (uvrA oxyR), but was less mutagenic in strain IC188 (uvrA). We propose that the mutagenicity of SnCl2 in yeast and bacteria occurs via error-prone repair of DNA damage that is produced by reactive oxygen species.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|