In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mec1/ATR plays a primary role in sensing and transducing checkpoint signals in response to different types of DNA lesions, while the role of the Tel1/ATM kinase in DNA damage checkpoints is not as well defined. We found that UV irradiation in G(1) in the absence of Mec1 activates a Tel1/MRX-dependent checkpoint, which specifically inhibits the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Activation of this checkpoint leads to phosphorylation of the downstream checkpoint kinases Rad53 and Chk1, which are required for Tel1-dependent cell cycle arrest, and their adaptor Rad9. The spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2 also partially contributes to the G(2)/M arrest of UV-irradiated mec1Delta cells independently of Rad53 phosphorylation and activation. The inability of UV-irradiated mec1Delta cells to undergo anaphase can be relieved by eliminating the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, whose phosphorylation and stabilization in these cells depend on Tel1, suggesting that Pds1 persistence may be responsible for the inability to undergo anaphase. Moreover, while UV irradiation can trigger Mec1-dependent Rad53 phosphorylation and activation in G(1)- and G(2)-arrested cells, Tel1-dependent checkpoint activation requires entry into S phase independently of the cell cycle phase at which cells are UV irradiated, and it is decreased when single-stranded DNA signaling is affected by the rfa1-t11 allele. This indicates that UV-damaged DNA molecules need to undergo structural changes in order to activate the Tel1-dependent checkpoint. Active Clb-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) complexes also participate in triggering this checkpoint and are required to maintain both Mec1- and Tel1-dependent Rad53 phosphorylation, suggesting that they may provide critical phosphorylation events in the DNA damage checkpoint cascade.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|