During anaerobiosis Saccharomyces cerevisiae strongly increases glycerol production to provide for non-respiratory oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). We here report that respiratory-deficient cells become strictly dependent on the Gpd2p isoform of the NAD(+)-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd). The growth inhibition of respiratory incompetent cox18Delta cells lacking GPD2 is reversed by the addition of acetoin, an alternative sink for NADH oxidation. Growth is also restored by addition of lysine or glutamic acid/glutamine, the synthesis of which involves production of mitochondrial NADH. Lysine produced a stronger growth stimulating effect than glutamic acid consistent with an upregulated expression of the IDP3 gene for peroxisomal synthesis of the glutamate precursor alpha-ketoglutarate. Gpd2p is known to be a cytosolic protein but possesses a classical mitochondrial presequence, which we show is sufficient for mitochondrial targeting. A partial mitochondrial localization of Gpd2p will provide for establishment of intramitochondrial redox balance under non-respiratory conditions. Gpd1p, the other Gpd isoform, is partly cytosolic and partly peroxisomal and becomes more strictly peroxisomal in respiratory-deficient mutants. The different cellular distribution of Gpd1p and Gpd2p thus appears to be the main reason Gpd1p cannot substitute for Gpd2p in cox18Deltagpd2Delta cells, despite similar kinetic characteristics of the two iso-enzymes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|