This work reports the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YIL121w, encoding a member of a family of drug:H(+) antiporters with 12 predicted membrane-spanning segments (DHA12 family). Like its close homologue Qdr1p, Yil121wp was localized at the plasma membrane, and its increased expression also led to increased tolerance to the antiarrhythmia and antimalarial drug quinidine. The quinidine resistance phenotype was confirmed for different yeast strains and growth media, including a prototrophic strain, and YIL121w was named the QDR2 gene. Both QDR1 and QDR2 were also implicated in yeast resistance to the herbicide barban (4-chloro-2-butynyl [3-chlorophenyl] carbamate), and the genes are functionally interchangeable with respect to both resistance phenotypes. The average intracellular pH of a yeast population challenged with quinidine added to the acidic growth medium was significantly below the intracellular pH of the unstressed population, suggesting plasma membrane permeabilization by quinidine with consequent increase of the H(+) influx rate. For the same extracellular quinidine concentration, internal acidification was more intense for the Deltaqdr2 deletant compared with the parental strain. Although QDR2 transcription was not enhanced in response to quinidine, the results confirmed that Qdr2p is involved in the active export of quinidine out of the cell, thus conferring resistance to the drug.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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