Chromosome condensation plays an essential role in the maintenance of genetic integrity. Using genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches, we distinguish two cell-cycle-regulated pathways for chromosome condensation in budding yeast. From G(2) to metaphase, we show that the condensation of the approximately 1-Mb rDNA array is a multistep process, and describe condensin-dependent clustering, alignment, and resolution steps in chromosome folding. We functionally define a further postmetaphase chromosome assembly maturation step that is required for the maintenance of chromosome structural integrity during segregation. This late step in condensation requires the conserved mitotic kinase Ipl1/aurora in addition to condensin, but is independent of cohesin. Consistent with this, the late condensation pathway is initiated during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, supports de novo condensation in cohesin mutants, and correlates with the Ipl1/aurora-dependent phosphorylation of condensin. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of higher-order chromosome folding and suggest that two distinct condensation pathways, one involving cohesins and the other Ipl1/aurora, are required to modulate chromosome structure during mitosis.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|