Strains of the yeast Pichia inositovora that carry the linear plasmids pPin1-1 (18 kb) and pPin1-3 (10 kb) display a killer activity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cloning and sequencing of the smaller plasmid, pPin1-3, revealed that it is 9683 bp long and has 154-bp terminal inverted repeats. Comparison of pPin1-3 with the only other completely sequenced killer plasmid, pGKL1 of Kluyveromyces lactis, revealed differences in genome organization. The Pichia element has four ORFs that account for 95% of the sequence. ORF1 is homologous to the putative immunity gene of the K. lactis system. A viral B-type DNA polymerase is encoded by ORF2. The predicted product of ORF3 displays similarities to the alpha- and beta-subunits of the heterotrimeric K. lactis killer toxin, also known as zymocin. A cysteine-rich chitin-binding site and a chitinase signature, characteristic for the alpha-subunit of zymocin were identified in Orf3p. Chitin affinity chromatography and Western analysis confirmed the plasmid specific expression and secretion of a protein that cross-reacts with an antibody raised against the alpha-subunit of K. lactis zymocin. Disruption of the major chitin synthase-gene ( CHS3) renders S. cerevisiae resistant to the toxin, providing further evidence that chitin is the cellular receptor for the P. inositovora toxin. Orf4p of pPin1-3 displays only weak similarities to the gamma-subunit of zymocin, which causes a G1 cell-cycle arrest in S. cerevisiae. However, disruption of the S. cerevisiae gene ELP3/TOT3, which encodes a histone-acetyltransferase that is essential for zymocin action, resulted in reduced sensitivity to the P. inositovora toxin also. Thus, despite obvious differences in genome organization and protein architecture, both killer systems very probably have similar modes of action.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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