The integrity of chromosomes during cell division is ensured by both trans-acting factors and cis-acting chromosomal sites. Failure of either these chromosome integrity determinants (CIDs) can cause chromosomes to be broken and subsequently misrepaired to form gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs). We developed a simple and rapid assay for GCRs, exploiting yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used this assay to screen a genome-wide pool of mutants for elevated rates of GCR. The analyses of these mutants define new CIDs (Orc3p, Orc5p, and Ycs4p) and new pathways required for chromosome integrity in DNA replication elongation (Dpb11p), DNA replication initiation (Orc3p and Orc5p), and mitotic condensation (Ycs4p). We show that the chromosome integrity function of Orc5p is associated with its ATP-binding motif and is distinct from its function in controlling the efficiency of initiation of DNA replication. Finally, we used our YAC assay to assess the interplay of trans and cis factors in chromosome integrity. Increasing the number of origins on a YAC suppresses GCR formation in our dpb11 mutant but enhances it in our orc mutants. This result provides potential insights into the counterbalancing selective pressures necessary for the evolution of origin density on chromosomes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|