The irreversible oxidation of cysteine residues can be prevented by protein S-thiolation, a process by which protein -SH groups form mixed disulfides with low molecular weight thiols such as glutathione. We report here that this protein modification is not a simple response to the cellular redox state, since different oxidants lead to different patterns of protein S-thiolation. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is the major target for modification following treatment with hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide or tert-butylhydroperoxide), whereas this enzyme is unaffected following cellular exposure to the thiol oxidant diamide. Further evidence that protein S-thiolation is tightly regulated in response to oxidative stress is provided by the finding that the Tdh3 GAPDH isoenzyme, and not the Tdh2 isoenzyme, is S-thiolated following exposure to H(2)O(2) in vivo, whereas both GAPDH isoenzymes are S-thiolated when H(2)O(2) is added to cell-free extracts. This indicates that cellular factors are likely to be responsible for the difference in GAPDH S-thiolation observed in vivo rather than intrinsic structural differences between the GAPDH isoenzymes. To begin to search for factors that can regulate the S-thiolation process, we investigated the role of the glutaredoxin family of oxidoreductases. We provide the first evidence that protein dethiolation in vivo is regulated by a monothiol-glutaredoxin rather than the classical glutaredoxins, which contain two active site cysteine residues. In particular, glutaredoxin 5 is required for efficient dethiolation of the Tdh3 GAPDH isoenzyme.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|