Precocious entry into S phase due to overproduction of G1 regulators can cause genomic instability. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are largely unknown. We explored the consequences of precocious S phase in yeast by overproducing a deregulated form of Swi4 (Swi4-t). Swi4 is a late G1-specific transcriptional activator that, in complex with Swi6, binds to SCB elements and activates late G1-specific genes, including G1 cyclins. We find that wild-type cells tolerate Swi4-t, whereas checkpoint-deficient rad53-11 cells lose viability within several divisions when Swi4-t is overproduced. Rad53 kinase activity is increased in cells overproducing Swi4-t, indicating activation of the checkpoint. We monitored the transition from G1 to S in cells with Swi4-t and found that there is precocious S-phase entry and that the length of S phase is extended. Moreover, there were more replication intermediates, and firing of at least a subset of origins may have been more extensive in the cells expressing Swi4-t. Our working hypothesis is that Rad53 modulates origin firing based upon growth conditions to optimize the rate of S-phase progression without adversely affecting fidelity. This regulation becomes essential when S phase is influenced by Swi4-t.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|