A role for sphingolipids in the yeast heat stress response has been suggested by the isolation of suppressors of mutants lacking these lipids, which are unable to grow at elevated temperatures. The current study examines the possible role of sphingolipids in the heat adaptation of yeast cells as monitored by growth and viability studies. The suppressor of long chain base auxotrophy (SLC, strain 7R4) showed a heat-sensitive phenotype that was corrected by transformation with serine palmitoyltransferase. Thus, the deficiency in sphingolipids and not the suppressor mutation was the cause of the heat-sensitive phenotype of the SLC strain 7R4. The ability of sphingolipids to rescue the heat-sensitive phenotype was examined, and two endogenous yeast sphingoid backbones, phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine, were found to be most potent in this effect. Next, the effect of heat stress on the levels of the three major classes of sphingolipids was determined. The inositol phosphoceramides showed no change over a 1.5-h time course. However, the four detected species of sphingoid bases increased after 15 min of heat stress from 1.4- to 10.8-fold. The largest increases were seen in two sphingoid bases, C20 phytosphingosine and C20 dihydrosphingosine, which increased 6.4- and 10.8-fold over baseline, respectively. At 60 min of heat stress two species of yeast ceramide increased by 9.2- and 10.6-fold over baseline. The increase seen in the ceramides was partially decreased by Fumonisin B1, a ceramide synthase inhibitor. Therefore, heat stress induces accumulation of sphingoid bases and of ceramides, probably through de novo synthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sphingolipids are involved in the yeast heat stress adaptation.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|