A site-directed mutagenesis study was carried out in order to understand the regulatory mechanism of calmodulin. We started from the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) calmodulin gene since it has many differences in amino acid sequence and inferior functional properties compared with the vertebrate calmodulin. Recombinant yeast calmodulins were generated in Escherichia coli transformed by constructed expression plasmids. Three recombinant calmodulins were obtained. The first two were YCM61G, in which the Ca2(+)-binding site 2 (the four Ca2(+)-binding EF-hand structures in calmodulin were numbered from the N-terminus) was converted to the same as that in vertebrate calmodulin, and YCM delta 132-148, in which the C-terminal half sequence of site 4 was deleted. These two recombinant calmodulins had the same maximum Ca2+ binding (3 mol/mol) as yeast calmodulin, which indicates that site 4 of yeast calmodulin was the one losing Ca2+ binding capacity. YCM delta 132-148 could not activate target enzymes, whereas its Ca2+ binding profile was similar to those of yeast calmodulin and YCM61G. Therefore, the structure in site 4 which cannot bind Ca2+ is indispensable for the regulatory function of yeast calmodulin. The complete regulatory function of vertebrate calmodulin can be attained by the combination of 4 Ca2+ binding structures. The negative charge cluster in the central alpha-helix region is suggested to stabilize the active conformation of calmodulin, since the third yeast calmodulin mutant, YCM83E, which had the negative charge cluster, increased the maximum activation of myosin light chain kinase.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|