Under inducing conditions, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae perform a dimorphic transition from yeast-form growth on the agar surface to invasive growth, where chains of cells dig into the solid growth medium. Previous work on signaling cascades that promote agar invasion has demonstrated upregulation of FLO11, a cell-surface flocculin involved in cell-cell adhesion. We find that increasing FLO11 transcription is sufficient to induce both invasive and filamentous growth. A genetic screen for repressors of FLO11 isolated mutant strains that dig into agar (dia) and identified mutations in 35 different genes: ELM1, HSL1, HSL7, BUD3, BUD4, BUD10, AXL1, SIR2, SIR4, BEM2, PGI1, GND1, YDJ1, ARO7, GRR1, CDC53, HSC82, ZUO1, ADH1, CSE2, GCR1, IRA1, MSN5, SRB8, SSN3, SSN8, BPL1, GTR1, MED1, SKN7, TAF25, DIA1, DIA2, DIA3, and DIA4. Indeed, agar invasion in 20 dia mutants requires upregulation of the endogenous FLO11 promoter. However, 13 mutants promote agar invasion even with FLO11 clamped at a constitutive low-expression level. These FLO11 promoter-independent dia mutants establish distinct invasive growth pathways due to polarized bud site selection and/or cell elongation. Epistasis with the STE MAP kinase cascade and cytokinesis/budding checkpoint shows these pathways are targets of DIA genes that repress agar invasion by FLO11 promoter-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|