In the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress, both activators and repressors are implicated. Here we demonstrate that the ion homeostasis determinant, HAL1, is regulated by two antagonistically operating bZIP transcription factors, the Sko1p repressor and the Gcn4p activator. A single CRE-like sequence (CRE(HAL1)) at position -222 to -215 with the palindromic core sequence TTACGTAA is essential for stress-induced expression of HAL1. Down-regulation of HAL1 under normal growth conditions requires specific binding of Sko1p to CRE(HAL1) and the corepressor gene SSN6. Release from this repression depends on the function of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. The Gcn4p transcriptional activator binds in vitro to the same CRE(HAL1) and is necessary for up-regulated HAL1 expression in vivo, indicating a dual control mechanism by a repressor-activator pair occupying the same promoter target sequence. gcn4 mutants display a strong sensitivity to elevated K(+) or Na(+) concentrations in the growth medium. In addition to reduced HAL1 expression, this sensitivity is explained by the fact that amino acid uptake is drastically impaired by high Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in wild-type yeast cells. The reduced amino acid biosynthesis of gcn4 mutants would result in amino acid deprivation. Together with the induction of HAL1 by amino acid starvation, these results suggest that salt stress and amino acid availability are physiologically interconnected.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|