Academic studies and traditional breeding of yeasts depend upon their sporulation lifestyle. The strains used have been specially selected to sporulate readily and to mate producing new yeast types. Unfortunately brewing yeast strains do not behave in this way. They sporulate poorly, any spores which are formed are usually non-viable and any haploid strains produced are invariably non-maters. Only in recent years, with the development of recombinant-DNA techniques, has the specific breeding of new brewing yeast strains become widespread. Strains have been produced with the ability to ferment a wider range of carbohydrates, with altered flocculation properties and which produce beers with modified flavours. Many have been tested on the pilot scale and one, an amylolytic brewing yeast, has received approval for commercial use.
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