Mutants in the adenine biosynthetic pathway of yeasts (ade1 and ade2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ade6 and ade7 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe) accumulate an intense red pigment in their vacuoles when grown under adenine-limiting conditions. The precise events that determine the formation of the pigment are however, still unknown. We have begun a genetic investigation into the nature and cause of pigmentation of ade6 mutants of S. pombe and have discovered that one of these pigmentation defective mutants, apd1 (adenine pigmentation defective), is a strict glutathione auxotroph. The gene apd1+ was found to encode the first enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, gcs1+. This gene when expressed in the mutant could confer both glutathione prototrophy and the characteristic red pigmentation, and disruption of the gene led to a loss in both phenotypes. Supplementation of glutathione in the medium, however, could only restore growth but not the pigmentation because the cells were unable to achieve sufficient intracellular levels of glutathione. Disruption of the second enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione synthetase gsh2+, also led to glutathione auxotrophy, but only a partial defect in pigment formation. A reevaluation of the major amino acids previously reported to be present in the pigment indicated that the pigment is probably a glutathione conjugate. The ability of vanadate to inhibit pigment formation indicated that the conjugate was transported into the vacuole through a glutathione-conjugate pump. This was further confirmed using strains of S. cerevisiae bearing disruptions in the recently identified glutathione-conjugate pump, YCF1, where a significant reduction in pigment formation was observed. The pump of S. pombe is distinct from the previously identified vacuolar pump, hmt1p, for transporting cadystin peptides into vacuoles of S. pombe.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|