The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa1 and MAT alpha 2 homeodomain proteins, which play a role in determining yeast cell type, form a heterodimer that binds DNA and represses transcription in a cell type-specific manner. Whereas the alpha 2 and a1 proteins on their own have only modest affinity for DNA, the a1/alpha 2 heterodimer binds DNA with high specificity and affinity. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the a1/alpha 2 homeodomain heterodimer bound to DNA was determined at a resolution of 2.5 A. The a1 and alpha 2 homeodomains bind in a head-to-tail orientation, with heterodimer contacts mediated by a 16-residue tail located carboxyl-terminal to the alpha 2 homeodomain. This tail becomes ordered in the presence of a1, part of it forming a short amphipathic helix that packs against the a1 homeodomain between helices 1 and 2. A pronounced 60 degree bend is induced in the DNA, which makes possible protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts that could not take place in a straight DNA fragment. Complex formation mediated by flexible protein-recognition peptides attached to stably folded DNA binding domains may prove to be a general feature of the architecture of other classes of eukaryotic transcriptional regulators.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|