Protein conjugation, such as ubiquitination, is the process by which the C-terminal glycine of a small modifier protein is covalently attached to target protein(s) through sequential reactions with an activating enzyme and conjugating enzymes. Here we report on a novel protein conjugation system in yeast. A newly identified ubiquitin related modifier, Urm1 is a 99-amino acid protein terminated with glycine-glycine. Urm1 is conjugated to target proteins, which requires the C-terminal glycine of Urm1. At the first step of this reaction, Urm1 forms a thioester with a novel E1-like protein, Uba4. Deltaurm1 and Deltauba4 cells showed a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Urm1 and Uba4 show similarity to prokaryotic proteins essential for molybdopterin and thiamin biosynthesis, although the Urm1 system is not involved in these pathways. This is the fifth conjugation system in yeast, following ubiquitin, Smt3, Rub1, and Apg12, but it is unique in respect to relation to prokaryotic enzyme systems. This fact may provide an important clue regarding evolution of protein conjugation systems in eukaryotic cells.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|