De novo biosynthesis of amino acids uses intermediates provided by the TCA cycle that must be replenished by anaplerotic reactions to maintain the respiratory competency of the cell. Genome-wide expression analyses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that many of the genes involved in these reactions are repressed in the presence of the preferred nitrogen sources glutamine or glutamate. Expression of these genes in media containing urea or ammonia as a sole nitrogen source requires the heterodimeric bZip transcription factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 and correlates with a redistribution of the Rtg1p/Rtg3 complex from a predominantly cytoplasmic to a predominantly nuclear location. Nuclear import of the complex requires the cytoplasmic protein Rtg2, a previously identified upstream regulator of Rtg1 and Rtg3, whereas export requires the importin-beta-family member Msn5. Remarkably, nuclear accumulation of Rtg1/Rtg3, as well as expression of their target genes, is induced by addition of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinases. We demonstrate further that Rtg3 is a phosphoprotein and that its phosphorylation state changes after rapamycin treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that target of rapamycin signaling regulates specific anaplerotic reactions by coupling nitrogen quality to the activity and subcellular localization of distinct transcription factors.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|