The Apn1 DNA repair enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts on abasic sites and oxygen radical damages. Apn1 is homologous to the repair endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli, but the yeast protein is approximately 80 residues longer at the C terminus. The Apn1 C terminus is rich in basic amino acids and includes two lysine/arginine clusters related to the nuclear transport signals of some other proteins. We show here by indirect immunofluorescence that Apn1 is localized to the yeast nucleus. Mutant Apn1 proteins were engineered with progressive deletions inward from the C terminus. Elimination of just the last 12 residues from Apn1 (to yield Apn355) did not alter the stability in yeast cells or the in vitro activity of the enzyme. Greater truncation of Apn1 produced proteins of apparently lower (Apn334) or much lower (Apn315 and Apn293) in vivo stability. Both Apn355 and Apn334 failed to concentrate in the yeast nucleus and remained in the cytoplasm. These delocalized derivatives also failed to restore wild-type resistance to oxidative or alkylating agents in a delta apn1 strain. Apn355 and Apn334 complemented repair-deficient E. coli as effectively as did wild-type Apn1. Resistance to these DNA-damaging agents in yeast was restored if Apn355 and Apn334 (but not Apn315 or Apn293) were overproduced approximately 20-fold, which suggests either weak active transport or passive diffusion of these derivatives into the nucleus. Replacement of the C-terminal 12 residues of Apn1 with the nuclear targeting sequence of SV40 T-antigen did not restore effective function or nuclear localization in yeast.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|