Calmodulin was localized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by indirect immunofluorescence using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. Calmodulin displays an asymmetric distribution that changes during the cell cycle. In unbudded cells, calmodulin concentrates at the presumptive site of bud formation approximately 10 min before bud emergence. In small budded cells, calmodulin accumulates throughout the bud. As the bud grows, calmodulin concentrates at the tip, then disperses, and finally concentrates in the neck region before cytokinesis. An identical staining pattern is observed when wild-type calmodulin is replaced with mutant forms of calmodulin impaired in binding Ca2+. Thus, the localization of calmodulin does not depend on its ability to bind Ca2+ with a high affinity. Double labeling of yeast cells with affinity-purified anti-calmodulin antibody and rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin indicates that calmodulin and actin concentrate in overlapping regions during the cell cycle. Furthermore, disrupting calmodulin function using a temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutant delocalizes actin, and act1-4 mutants contain a random calmodulin distribution. Thus, calmodulin and actin distributions are interdependent. Finally, calmodulin localizes to the shmoo tip in cells treated with alpha-factor. This distribution, at sites of cell growth, implicates calmodulin in polarized cell growth in yeast.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|