Genetic instability in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad9 mutant correlates with failure to arrest the cell cycle in response to DNA damage. We quantitated the DNA damage-associated stimulation of directed translocations in RAD9+ and rad9 mutants. Directed translocations were generated by selecting for His+ prototrophs that result from homologous, mitotic recombination between two truncated his3 genes, GAL1::his3-delta5' and trp1::his3-delta3'::HOcs. Compared to RAD9+ strains, the rad9 mutant exhibits a 5-fold higher rate of spontaneous, mitotic recombination and a greater than 10-fold increase in the number of UV- and X-ray-stimulated His+ recombinants that contain translocations. The higher level of recombination in rad9 mutants correlated with the appearance of nonreciprocal translocations and additional karyotypic changes, indicating that genomic instability also occurred among non-his3 sequences. Both enhanced spontaneous recombination and DNA damage-associated recombination are dependent on RAD1, a gene involved in DNA excision repair. The hyperrecombinational phenotype of the rad9 mutant was correlated with a deficiency in cell cycle arrest at the G2-M checkpoint by demonstrating that if rad9 mutants were arrested in G2 before irradiation, the numbers both of UV- and gamma-ray-stimulated recombinants were reduced. The importance of G2 arrest in DNA damage-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was evident by a 10-fold reduction in HO endonuclease-induced SCE and no detectable X-ray stimulation of SCE in a rad9 mutant. We suggest that one mechanism by which the RAD9-mediated G2-M checkpoint may reduce the frequency of DNA damage-induced translocations is by channeling the repair of double-strand breaks into SCE.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|