3'-end formation is a complex and incompletely understood process involving both cis-acting and trans-acting factors. As part of an effort to examine the mechanisms of transcription termination by RNA polymerase II, a mutant hunt for strains defective in 3'-end formation was conducted. Following random mutagenesis, a temperature-sensitive strain exhibiting several phenotypes consistent with a role in transcription termination was isolated. First, readthrough of a terminator increases significantly in the mutant strain. Accordingly, RNA analysis indicates a decrease in the level of terminated transcripts, both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, a plasmid stability assay in which high levels of readthrough lead to high levels of plasmid loss and transcription run-on analysis also demonstrate defective termination of transcription. Examination of polyadenylation and cleavage by the mutant strain indicates these processes are not affected. These results represent the first example of a transcription termination factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects transcription termination independent of 3'-end processing of mRNA. Complementation studies identified GRS1, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, as the complementing gene. Sequence analysis of grs1-1 in the mutant strain revealed that nucleotides 1656 and 1657 were both C to T transitions, resulting in a single amino acid change of proline to phenylalanine. Further studies revealed GRS1 is essential, and the grs1-1 allele confers the temperature-sensitive growth defect associated with the mutant strain. Finally, we observed structures with some similarity to tRNA molecules within the 3'-end of various yeast genes. On the basis of our results, we suggest Grs1p is a transcription termination factor that may interact with the 3'-end of pre-mRNA to promote 3'-end formation.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|