The beta-oxidation of saturated fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is confined exclusively to the peroxisomal compartment of the cell. Processing of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with the double bond at an even position requires, in addition to the basic beta-oxidation machinery, the contribution of the NADPH-dependent enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase. Here we show by biochemical cell fractionation studies that this enzyme is a typical constituent of peroxisomes. As a consequence, the beta-oxidation of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with double bonds at even positions requires stoichiometric amounts of intraperoxisomal NADPH. We suggest that NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes function in an NADP redox shuttle across the peroxisomal membrane to keep intraperoxisomal NADP reduced. This is based on the finding of a third NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzyme, Idp3p, next to the already known mitochondrial and cytosolic isoenzymes, which turned out to be present in the peroxisomal matrix. Our proposal is strongly supported by the observation that peroxisomal Idp3p is essential for growth on the unsaturated fatty acids arachidonic, linoleic and petroselinic acid, which require 2, 4-dienoyl-CoA reductase activity. On the other hand, growth on oleate which does not require 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, and NADPH is completely normal in Deltaidp3 cells.
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