Ubiquitin modification of signal transducing receptors at the plasma membrane is necessary for rapid receptor internalization and downregulation. We have investigated whether ubiquitylation alters a receptor cytoplasmic tail to reveal a previously masked internalization signal, or whether ubiquitin itself carries an internalization signal. Using an alpha-factor receptor-ubiquitin chimeric protein, we demonstrate that monoubiquitin can mediate internalization of an activated receptor that lacks all cytoplasmic tail sequences. Furthermore, fusion of ubiquitin in-frame to the stable plasma membrane protein Pma1p stimulates endocytosis of this protein. Ubiquitin does not carry a functional tyrosine- or di-leucine-based internalization signal. Instead, the three-dimensional structure of the folded ubiquitin polypeptide carries an internalization signal that consists of two surface patches surrounding the critical residues Phe4 and Ile44. We conclude that ubiquitin functions as a novel regulated internalization signal that can be appended to a plasma membrane protein to trigger downregulation.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|