Homologs of the chromatin-bound yeast silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) protein are found in organisms from all biological kingdoms. SIR2 itself was originally discovered to influence mating-type control in haploid cells by locus-specific transcriptional silencing. Since then, SIR2 and its homologs have been suggested to play additional roles in suppression of recombination, chromosomal stability, metabolic regulation, meiosis, and aging. Considering the far-ranging nature of these functions, a major experimental goal has been to understand the molecular mechanism(s) by which this family of proteins acts. We report here that members of the SIR2 family catalyze an NAD-nicotinamide exchange reaction that requires the presence of acetylated lysines such as those found in the N termini of histones. Significantly, these enzymes also catalyze histone deacetylation in a reaction that absolutely requires NAD, thereby distinguishing them from previously characterized deacetylases. The enzymes are active on histone substrates that have been acetylated by both chromatin assembly-linked and transcription-related acetyltransferases. Contrary to a recent report, we find no evidence that these proteins ADP-ribosylate histones. Discovery of an intrinsic deacetylation activity for the conserved SIR2 family provides a mechanism for modifying histones and other proteins to regulate transcription and diverse biological processes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|