Null mutations in genes encoding V-ATPase subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae result in a phenotype that is unable to grow at high pH and is sensitive to high and low metal-ion concentrations. Treatment of these null mutants with ethylmethanesulfonate causes mutations that suppress the V-ATPase null phenotype, and the mutant cells are able to grow at pH 7.5. The suppressor mutants were denoted as svf (suppressor of V-ATPase function). The frequency of svf is relatively high, suggesting a large target containing several genes for the ethylmethanesulfonate mutagenesis. The suppressors' frequency is dependent on the individual genes that were inactivated to manifest the V-ATPase null mutation. The svf mutations are recessive, because crossing the svf mutants with their corresponding V-ATPase null mutants resulted in diploid strains that are unable to grow at pH 7.5. A novel gene family in which null mutations cause pleiotropic effects on metal-ion resistance or sensitivity and distribution of membrane proteins in different targets was discovered. The family was defined as VTC (Vacuolar Transporter Chaperon) and it contains four genes in the S. cerevisiae genome. Inactivation of one of them, VTC1, in the background of V-ATPase null mutations resulted in svf phenotype manifested by growth at pH 7.5. Deletion of the VTC1 gene (DeltaVTC1) results in a reduced amount of V-ATPase in the vacuolar membrane. These mutant cells fail to accumulate quinacrine into their vacuoles, but they are able to grow at pH 7.5. The VTC1 null mutant also results in a reduced amount of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (Pma1p) in membrane preparations and possibly mis-targeting. This observation may provide an explanation for the svf phenotype in the double disruptant mutants of DeltaVTC1 and DeltaVMA subunits.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|