The CCC2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the human genes defective in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. A biochemical hallmark of these diseases is a deficiency of copper in ceruloplasmin and other copper proteins found in extracytosolic compartments. Here we demonstrate that disruption of the yeast CCC2 gene results in defects in respiration and iron uptake. These defects could be reversed by supplementing cells with copper, suggesting that CCC2 mutant cells were copper deficient. However, cytosolic copper levels and copper uptake were normal. Instead, CCC2 mutant cells lacked a copper-dependent oxidase activity associated with the extracytosolic domain of the FET3-encoded protein, a ceruloplasmin homologue previously shown to be necessary for high-affinity iron uptake in yeast. Copper restored oxidase activity both in vitro and in vivo, paralleling the ability of copper to restore respiration and iron uptake. These results suggest that the CCC2-encoded protein is required for the export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment, supporting the proposal that intracellular copper transport is impaired in Wilson disease and Menkes disease.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|