Tomala K and Korona R (2013) Evaluating the Fitness Cost of Protein Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome Biol Evol 5(11):2051-60
Abstract: Protein metabolism is one of the most costly processes in the cell and is therefore expected to be under the effective control of natural selection. We stimulated yeast strains to overexpress each single gene product to approximately 1% of the total protein content. Consistent with previous reports, we found that excessive expression of proteins containing disordered or membrane-protruding regions resulted in an especially high fitness cost. We estimated these costs to be nearly twice as high as for other proteins. There was a ten-fold difference in cost if, instead of entire proteins, only the disordered or membrane-embedded regions were compared with other segments. Although the cost of processing bulk protein was measurable, it could not be explained by several tested protein features, including those linked to translational efficiency or intensity of physical interactions after maturation. It most likely included a number of individually indiscernible effects arising during protein synthesis, maturation, maintenance, (mal)functioning, and disposal. When scaled to the levels normally achieved by proteins in the cell, the fitness cost of dealing with one amino acid in a standard protein appears to be generally very low. Many single amino acid additions or deletions are likely to be neutral even if the effective population size is as large as that of the budding yeast. This should also apply to substitutions. Selection is much more likely to operate if point mutations affect protein structure by, for example, extending or creating stretches that tend to unfold or interact improperly with membranes.
|Status: Published||Type: Journal Article||PubMed ID: 24128940|