Klionsky DJ (2013) Why just eat in, when you can also eat out? Autophagy 9(2):119
Abstract: The current working definition of autophagy is the following: all processes in which intracellular material is degraded within the lysosome/vacuole and where the macromolecular constituents are recycled. There are several ways to classify the different types of autophagy. For example, we can separate autophagy into two primary types, based on the initial site of cargo sequestration. In particular, during microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy, uptake occurs directly at the limiting membrane of the lysosome or vacuole. In contrast, macroautophagy-whether selective or nonselective-and endosomal microautophagy involve sequestration within an autophagosome or an omegasome, or late endosomes/multivesicular bodies, respectively; the key point being that in these types of autophagy the initial sequestration event does not occur at the limiting membrane of the degradative organelle. In any case, the cargo is ultimately delivered into the lysosome or vacuole lumen for subsequent degradation. Thus, I think most autophagy researchers view the degradative organelle as the ultimate destination of the pathway. Indeed, this fits with the general concept that organelles allow reactions to be compartmentalized. With regard to the lysosome or vacuole, this also confers a level of safety by keeping the lytic contents away from the remainder of the cell. If we are willing to slightly modify our definition of autophagy, with a focus on "degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal/vacuolar machinery," we can include a newly documented process, programmed nuclear destruction (PND).
|Status: Published||Type: Editorial||PubMed ID: 23159909|
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