Kessl JJ, et al. (2007) Parameters determining the relative efficacy of hydroxy-naphthoquinone inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767(4):319-26
Abstract: Hydroxy-naphthoquinones are competitive inhibitors of the cytochrome bc(1) complex that bind to the ubiquinol oxidation site between cytochrome b and the iron-sulfur protein and presumably mimic a transition state in the ubiquinol oxidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. The parameters that affect efficacy of binding of these inhibitors to the bc(1) complex are not well understood. Atovaquone(R), a hydroxy-naphthoquinone, has been used therapeutically to treat Pneumocystis carinii and Plasmodium infections. As the pathogens have developed resistance to this drug, it is important to understand the molecular basis of the drug resistance and to develop new drugs that can circumvent the drug resistance. We previously developed the yeast and bovine bc(1) complexes as surrogates to model the interaction of atovaquone with the bc(1) complexes of the target pathogens and human host. As a first step to identify new cytochrome bc(1) complex inhibitors with therapeutic potential and to better understand the determinants of inhibitor binding, we have screened a library of 2-hydroxy-naphthoquinones with aromatic, cyclic, and non-cyclic alkyl side-chain substitutions at carbon-3 on the hydroxy-quinone ring. We found a group of compounds with alkyl side-chains that effectively inhibit the yeast bc(1) complex. Molecular modeling of these into the crystal structure of the yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex provides structural and quantitative explanations for their binding efficacy to the target enzyme. In addition we also identified a 2-hydroxy-naphthoquinone with a branched side-chain that has potential for development as an anti-fungal and anti-parasitic therapeutic.
|Status: Published||Type: Journal Article||PubMed ID: 17383607|
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