RAP1/YNL216W Summary Help

Standard Name RAP1
Systematic Name YNL216W
Alias GRF1 1 , TBA1 , TUF1
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Essential DNA-binding transcription regulator that binds many loci; involved in transcription activation and repression, chromatin silencing, and telomere length maintenance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; conserved protein with an N-terminal BRCT domain, a central region with homology to the Myb DNA binding domain, and a C-terminal Rap1-specific protein-interaction domain (RCT domain) (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Repressor Activator Protein
Chromosomal Location
ChrXIV:241689 to 244172 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -148 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All RAP1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RAP1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Targets 904 genes
Regulators 3 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
reduction of function
362 total interaction(s) for 276 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 14
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 20
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-localization: 2
  • Far Western: 2
  • PCA: 4
  • Reconstituted Complex: 15
  • Two-hybrid: 17

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Lethality: 3
  • Dosage Rescue: 4
  • Negative Genetic: 162
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 3
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 7
  • Positive Genetic: 82
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 6
  • Synthetic Lethality: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 17

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 827
Molecular Weight (Da) 92,412
Isoelectric Point (pI) 4.68
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXIV:241689 to 244172 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -148 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2484 241689..244172 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005160

RAP1 (Repressor Activator Protein) encodes an essential protein involved in many diverse, some seemingly contradictory, processes in S. cerevisiae, including telomere maintenance, transcriptional silencing (repression) of the silent mating loci HML and HMR, and high level transcriptional activation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and glycolytic enzymes (8, 9, 10, 2). In these various roles, the underlying function of Rap1p is to bind DNA in a sequence specific manner, often regulating the chromatin structure in the region where it binds (11, 3). Rap1p binds extensively in telomeric regions, where its function is related to both transcriptional silencing and telomere maintenance (12). In its role as a transcription activating factor, the largest group of target genes are those that encode ribosomal proteins (2). In rapidly growing yeast cells, the transcription rate of these genes is extremely high, accounting for about twenty percent of the total mRNA content of the cell (13). Rap1p is known to be required for the transcription of several non-ribosomal protein genes, including HIS4 (14), ENO1 and ENO2 (15), and is implicated in transcriptional regulation of 185 additional genes (2).

Last updated: 2003-01-17 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RAP1
1) Elledge SJ and Davis RW  (1989) Identification of the DNA damage-responsive element of RNR2 and evidence that four distinct cellular factors bind it. Mol Cell Biol 9(12):5373-86
2) Lieb JD, et al.  (2001) Promoter-specific binding of Rap1 revealed by genome-wide maps of protein-DNA association. Nat Genet 28(4):327-34
3) Konig P, et al.  (1996) The crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of yeast RAP1 in complex with telomeric DNA. Cell 85(1):125-36
4) Pina B, et al.  (2003) The different (sur)faces of Rap1p. Mol Genet Genomics 268(6):791-8
5) Zhang W, et al.  (2011) Solution structure of Rap1 BRCT domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a novel fold. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 404(4):1055-9
6) Chen Y, et al.  (2011) A conserved motif within RAP1 has diversified roles in telomere protection and regulation in different organisms. Nat Struct Mol Biol 18(2):213-21
7) Ghosh Dastidar R, et al.  (2012) The nuclear localization of SWI/SNF proteins is subjected to oxygen regulation. Cell Biosci 2(1):30
8) Shore D and Nasmyth K  (1987) Purification and cloning of a DNA binding protein from yeast that binds to both silencer and activator elements. Cell 51(5):721-32
9) Vignais ML, et al.  (1987) Specific binding of TUF factor to upstream activation sites of yeast ribosomal protein genes. EMBO J 6(5):1451-7
10) Buchman AR, et al.  (1988) Connections between transcriptional activators, silencers, and telomeres as revealed by functional analysis of a yeast DNA-binding protein. Mol Cell Biol 8(12):5086-99
11) Morse RH  (2000) RAP, RAP, open up! New wrinkles for RAP1 in yeast. Trends Genet 16(2):51-3
12) Shore D  (1997) Telomere length regulation: getting the measure of chromosome ends. Biol Chem 378(7):591-7
13) Lascaris RF, et al.  (1999) DNA-binding requirements of the yeast protein Rap1p as selected in silico from ribosomal protein gene promoter sequences. Bioinformatics 15(4):267-77
14) Devlin C, et al.  (1991) RAP1 is required for BAS1/BAS2- and GCN4-dependent transcription of the yeast HIS4 gene. Mol Cell Biol 11(7):3642-51
15) Brindle PK, et al.  (1990) Multiple factors bind the upstream activation sites of the yeast enolase genes ENO1 and ENO2: ABFI protein, like repressor activator protein RAP1, binds cis-acting sequences which modulate repression or activation of transcription. Mol Cell Biol 10(9):4872-85
16) Badis G, et al.  (2008) A library of yeast transcription factor motifs reveals a widespread function for Rsc3 in targeting nucleosome exclusion at promoters. Mol Cell 32(6):878-87
17) Harbison CT, et al.  (2004) Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature 431(7004):99-104
18) Zhu C, et al.  (2009) High-resolution DNA-binding specificity analysis of yeast transcription factors. Genome Res 19(4):556-66
19) Matys V, et al.  (2003) TRANSFAC: transcriptional regulation, from patterns to profiles. Nucleic Acids Res 31(1):374-8