GAL10/YBR019C Summary Help

Standard Name GAL10 1
Systematic Name YBR019C
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description UDP-glucose-4-epimerase; catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-D-glucose in galactose metabolism; also catalyzes the conversion of alpha-D-glucose or alpha-D-galactose to their beta-anomers (2 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description GALactose metabolism
Chromosomal Location
ChrII:278352 to 276253 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gbrowse
Genetic position: 7 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All GAL10 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GAL10
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 6 genes
Resources
Pathways
Classical genetics
null
unspecified
Large-scale survey
null
Resources
70 total interaction(s) for 53 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 2
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 2
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 4
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 4
  • Negative Genetic: 32
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 4
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 3
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1
  • Synthetic Rescue: 11

Resources
Expression Summary
histogram
Resources
Length (a.a.) 699
Molecular Weight (Da) 78,195
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.84
Localization
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
Structure
Homologs
sequence information
ChrII:278352 to 276253 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
SGD ORF map
Genetic position: 7 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2004-07-16 | Sequence: 1997-01-28
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2100 278352..276253 2004-07-16 1997-01-28
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000000223
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for GAL10

GAL10 encodes a bifunctional enzyme with mutarotase and UDP galactose 4-epimerase activities (2, 3). Both of these functions are key in the process of galactose catabolism; mutarotase converts beta-D-galactose into its alpha form and galactose 4-epimerase catalyzes the reversible conversion between UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose (4, 2). Crystal structure analysis reveals that the galactose 4-epimerase domain, encoded by the N-terminus of the protein, is separated from the C-terminal mutarotase domain by a simple Type II turn (5). Loss of Gal10p activity renders cells unable to grow when galactose is the sole carbon source (6).

Although S. cerevisiae Gal10p is a bifunctional enzyme, in most organisms the epimerase and mutarotase activities are found on separate peptides. Mutations in human GALE (OMIM), the functional homolog of the galactose 4-epimerase domain of yeast Gal10p, have been associated with the disease galactose epimerase deficiency/galactosemia III (OMIM), the mild peripheral form of which is benign while the severe general form can cause impaired liver function and mental retardation (7 and references therein).

All the galactose structural genes (GAL1, GAL10, GAL7, GAL2) are coordinately regulated at the level of transcription in response to galactose by Gal4p, Gal80p, and Gal3p (4, 8, and reviewed in 9). Regardless of carbon source, the Gal4p transcriptional activator is bound as a dimer to upstream activation sites found in the promoters of the GAL genes. In the presence of galactose, Gal3p sequesters the transcriptional repressor Gal80p in the cytoplasm, thereby relieving inhibition of Gal4p and resulting in GAL gene expression (10). In the absence of galactose, Gal80p remains bound as a dimer, to Gal4p, preventing Gal4p from recruiting other factors of the Pol II transcription machinery (reviewed in 9).

Last updated: 2006-10-12 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GAL10
1) Bassel J and Mortimer R  (1971) Genetic order of the galactose structural genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 108(1):179-83
2) Majumdar S, et al.  (2004) UDPgalactose 4-epimerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A bifunctional enzyme with aldose 1-epimerase activity. Eur J Biochem 271(4):753-9
3) Fukasawa T, et al.  (1980) The enzymes of the galactose cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. II. Purification and characterization of uridine diphosphoglucose 4-epimerase. J Biol Chem 255(7):2705-7
4) De Robichon-Szulmajster H  (1958) Induction of enzymes of the galactose pathway in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science 127(3288):28-9
5) Thoden JB and Holden HM  (2005) The molecular architecture of galactose mutarotase/UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 280(23):21900-7
6) Douglas HC and Hawthorne DC  (1964) ENZYMATIC EXPRESSION AND GENETIC LINKAGE OF GENES CONTROLLING GALACTOSE UTILIZATION IN SACCHAROMYCES. Genetics 49():837-44
7) Thoden JB, et al.  (2001) Molecular basis for severe epimerase deficiency galactosemia. X-ray structure of the human V94m-substituted UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. J Biol Chem 276(23):20617-23
8) Platt A and Reece RJ  (1998) The yeast galactose genetic switch is mediated by the formation of a Gal4p-Gal80p-Gal3p complex. EMBO J 17(14):4086-91
9) Lohr D, et al.  (1995) Transcriptional regulation in the yeast GAL gene family: a complex genetic network. FASEB J 9(9):777-87
10) Peng G and Hopper JE  (2002) Gene activation by interaction of an inhibitor with a cytoplasmic signaling protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(13):8548-53