GLN1/YPR035W Summary Help

Standard Name GLN1
Systematic Name YPR035W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Glutamine synthetase (GS); synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia; with Glt1p, forms the secondary pathway for glutamate biosynthesis from ammonia; expression regulated by nitrogen source and by amino acid limitation; forms filaments of back-to-back stacks of cylindrical homo-decamers at low pH, leading to enzymatic inactivation and storage during states of advanced cellular starvation; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description GLutamiNe metabolism
Chromosomal Location
ChrXVI:642208 to 643320 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 29 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All GLN1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GLN1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Regulators 7 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
reduction of function
58 total interaction(s) for 40 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 23
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 4
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 3
  • Biochemical Activity: 4
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Co-purification: 1
  • PCA: 1
  • Protein-peptide: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 7

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 8
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 370
Molecular Weight (Da) 41,766
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.29
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXVI:642208 to 643320 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 29 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 2011-02-03
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1113 642208..643320 2011-02-03 2011-02-03
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000006239

About glutamate biosynthesis from glutamine

Yeast cells contain 3 pathways for the synthesis of glutamate. Two pathways are mediated by two isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 (6, 7). The third pathway is driven by the combined activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, encoded by GLN1 and GLT1, respectively (2, 8). Gln1p catalyzes amination of glutamate to form glutamine; Glt1p then transfers the amide group of glutamine to 2-oxoglutarate, generating two molecules of glutamate. Glutamate synthase, also referred to as GOGAT, is a trimer of three Glt1p subunits. Expression of the GLT1 gene is modulated by glutamate-mediated repression and by Gln3p/Gcn4p-mediated activation, depending upon the availability of nitrogen and glutamate in the medium. In amino acid starvation conditions, GLT1 expression is activated to a moderate degree by Gcn4p (9).

Last updated: 2007-10-04 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GLN1
1) ter Schure EG, et al.  (1998) Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology 144 ( Pt 5)():1451-62
2) Benjamin PM, et al.  (1989) Three regulatory systems control expression of glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the level of transcription. Mol Gen Genet 217(2-3):370-7
3) Magasanik B  (1992) "Regulation of Nitrogen Utilization." Pp. 283-317 in the Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces: Gene Expression, edited by Jones EW, Pringle JR and Broach JR. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
4) Tkach JM, et al.  (2012) Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analysing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress. Nat Cell Biol 14(9):966-76
5) Petrovska I, et al.  (2014) Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation. Elife ()
6) Moye WS, et al.  (1985) Nucleotide sequence of yeast GDH1 encoding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 260(14):8502-8
7) Avendano A, et al.  (1997) GDH3 encodes a glutamate dehydrogenase isozyme, a previously unrecognized route for glutamate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 179(17):5594-7
8) Filetici P, et al.  (1996) Sequence of the GLT1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals the domain structure of yeast glutamate synthase. Yeast 12(13):1359-66
9) Valenzuela L, et al.  (1998) Regulation of expression of GLT1, the gene encoding glutamate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 180(14):3533-40