MKK1/YOR231W Summary Help

Standard Name MKK1 1
Systematic Name YOR231W
Alias SSP32
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description MAPKK involved in the protein kinase C signaling pathway; involved in control of cell integrity; upon activation by Bck1p phosphorylates downstream target, Slt2p; functionally redundant with Mkk2p; MKK1 has a paralog, MKK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Mitogen-activated protein Kinase-Kinase 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXV:772601 to 774127 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All MKK1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for MKK1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 2 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
175 total interaction(s) for 102 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 7
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 2
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 3
  • Biochemical Activity: 9
  • Co-localization: 1
  • PCA: 4
  • Reconstituted Complex: 17
  • Two-hybrid: 5

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Growth Defect: 7
  • Dosage Rescue: 13
  • Negative Genetic: 67
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 14
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 5
  • Synthetic Lethality: 4
  • Synthetic Rescue: 14

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 508
Molecular Weight (Da) 56,720
Isoelectric Point (pI) 8.32
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXV:772601 to 774127 | ORF Map | GBrowse
This feature contains embedded feature(s): YOR231C-A
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1527 772601..774127 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005757

The Pkc1p kinase controls a highly-conserved cell wall integrity signalling pathway that regulates functions essential for growth and the integrity of proliferating cells (6, 7, 8). This pathway consists of a cascade of phosphorylation reactions initiated with the activation of Pkc1p (9, 10). Pkc1p then activates a basic three-protein kinase module involving an integration of the MEK-kinase Bck1p (11, 12), the redundant MEK-kinases Mkk1p and Mkk2p (1), and the MAP kinase Slt2p (13, 6). Strains disrupted for any of these protein kinases lose osmotic stability, especially at 37 C, such that the cells are viable only in the presence of sorbitol (or some other osmotic stabilizer), suggesting that the lysis is due to lack of cell wall integrity (8, 14).

Last updated: 2005-03-22 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for MKK1
1) Irie K, et al.  (1993) MKK1 and MKK2, which encode Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase homologs, function in the pathway mediated by protein kinase C. Mol Cell Biol 13(5):3076-83
2) Levin DE, et al.  (1994) Dissecting the protein kinase C/MAP kinase signalling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Mol Biol Res 40(3):229-39
3) Heinisch JJ, et al.  (1999) The protein kinase C-mediated MAP kinase pathway involved in the maintenance of cellular integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol 32(4):671-80
4) Soler M, et al.  (1995) Characterization of domains in the yeast MAP kinase Slt2 (Mpk1) required for functional activity and in vivo interaction with protein kinases Mkk1 and Mkk2. Mol Microbiol 17(5):833-42
5) Byrne KP and Wolfe KH  (2005) The Yeast Gene Order Browser: combining curated homology and syntenic context reveals gene fate in polyploid species. Genome Res 15(10):1456-61
6) Lee KS, et al.  (1993) A yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog (Mpk1p) mediates signalling by protein kinase C. Mol Cell Biol 13(5):3067-75
7) Sussman A, et al.  (2004) Discovery of cercosporamide, a known antifungal natural product, as a selective Pkc1 kinase inhibitor through high-throughput screening. Eukaryot Cell 3(4):932-43
8) Martin H, et al.  (1996) Molecular and functional characterization of a mutant allele of the mitogen-activated protein-kinase gene SLT2(MPK1) rescued from yeast autolytic mutants. Curr Genet 29(6):516-22
9) Levin DE, et al.  (1990) A candidate protein kinase C gene, PKC1, is required for the S. cerevisiae cell cycle. Cell 62(2):213-24
10) Paravicini G, et al.  (1992) The osmotic integrity of the yeast cell requires a functional PKC1 gene product. Mol Cell Biol 12(11):4896-905
11) Costigan C, et al.  (1994) NHP6A and NHP6B, which encode HMG1-like proteins, are candidates for downstream components of the yeast SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol 14(4):2391-403
12) Lee KS and Levin DE  (1992) Dominant mutations in a gene encoding a putative protein kinase (BCK1) bypass the requirement for a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase C homolog. Mol Cell Biol 12(1):172-82
13) Torres L, et al.  (1991) A protein kinase gene complements the lytic phenotype of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lyt2 mutants. Mol Microbiol 5(11):2845-54
14) Cid VJ, et al.  (1995) Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Rev 59(3):345-86