PCK1/YKR097W Summary Help

Standard Name PCK1 1
Systematic Name YKR097W
Alias JPM2 , PPC1
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, catalyzes early reaction in carbohydrate biosynthesis, glucose represses transcription and accelerates mRNA degradation, regulated by Mcm1p and Cat8p, located in the cytosol (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Phosphoenolpyruvate CarboxyKinase 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXI:631152 to 632801 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 73.2 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All PCK1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for PCK1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 4 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
90 total interaction(s) for 78 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 3
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 5
  • Biochemical Activity: 6
  • PCA: 2
  • Protein-peptide: 6
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 47
  • Positive Genetic: 17
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 549
Molecular Weight (Da) 60,983
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.31
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXI:631152 to 632801 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 73.2 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1650 631152..632801 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000001805

PCK1 encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which functions during gluconeogenesis to form phosphoenolpyruvate from oxaloacetate.

Gluconeogenesis is the process whereby glucose is synthesized from non-carbohydrate precursors, which enables yeast cells to grow on non-sugar carbon sources like ethanol, glycerol, or peptone. The reactions of gluconeogenesis, shown here, mediate conversion of pyruvate to glucose, which is the opposite of glycolysis, the formation of pyruvate from glucose. While these two pathways have several reactions in common, they are not the exact reverse of each other. As the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (Pfk1p, Pfk2p) and pyruvate kinase (Cdc19p) only function in the forward direction, the gluconeogenesis pathway replaces those steps with the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc1p, Pyc2p) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p)-generating oxaloacetate as an intermediate from pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate-and also the enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1p) (reviewed in 9). Overall, the gluconeogenic reactions convert two molecules of pyruvate to a molecule of glucose, with the expenditure of six high-energy phosphate bonds, four from ATP and two from GTP. Expression of genes encoding several of the gluconeogenic enzymes is subject to glucose repression (7).

Glucose repression of PCK1 (and FBP1) occurs at very low levels of glucose and is transmitted through multiple signaling pathways (10). The PCK1 upstream region contains consensus binding sites for Mig1p and the activating HAP complex (11) and also for the derepressing zinc finger protein Cat8p (reviewed in 9). The response to glucose seems also to be mediated by Ras/cAMP, as it can be triggered by exogenous cAMP (10). In addition to regulation of transcription, the amount of Pck1p in the cell is regulated by mRNA degradation when glucose-starved cells are replenished with glucose (12).

Last updated: 2005-07-22 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for PCK1
1) Valdes-Hevia MD, et al.  (1989) Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 258(2):313-6
2) Haurie V, et al.  (2001) The transcriptional activator Cat8p provides a major contribution to the reprogramming of carbon metabolism during the diauxic shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 276(1):76-85
3) Yin Z, et al.  (2000) Differential post-transcriptional regulation of yeast mRNAs in response to high and low glucose concentrations. Mol Microbiol 35(3):553-65
4) Kuo MH and Grayhack E  (1994) A library of yeast genomic MCM1 binding sites contains genes involved in cell cycle control, cell wall and membrane structure, and metabolism. Mol Cell Biol 14(1):348-59
5) Proft M, et al.  (1995) Identification and characterization of regulatory elements in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene PCK1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 246(3):367-73
6) Haarasilta S and Taskinen L  (1977) Location of three key enzymes of gluconeogenesis in baker's yeast. Arch Microbiol 113(1-2):159-61
7) Haarasilta S and Oura E  (1975) On the activity and regulation of anaplerotic and gluconeogenetic enzymes during the growth process of baker's yeast. The biphasic growth. Eur J Biochem 52(1):1-7
8) Llanos L, et al.  (2001) Mutation Arg336 to Lys in Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase originates an enzyme with increased oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity. FEBS Lett 493(1):1-5
9) Klein CJ, et al.  (1998) Glucose control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of Mig1 in metabolic functions. Microbiology 144 ( Pt 1)():13-24
10) Yin Z, et al.  (1996) Multiple signalling pathways trigger the exquisite sensitivity of yeast gluconeogenic mRNAs to glucose. Mol Microbiol 20(4):751-64
11) Mercado JJ and Gancedo JM  (1992) Regulatory regions in the yeast FBP1 and PCK1 genes. FEBS Lett 311(2):110-4
12) Mercado JJ, et al.  (1994) The levels of yeast gluconeogenic mRNAs respond to environmental factors. Eur J Biochem 224(2):473-81