REF2/YDR195W Summary Help

Standard Name REF2 1
Systematic Name YDR195W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description RNA-binding protein; involved in the cleavage step of mRNA 3'-end formation prior to polyadenylation, and in snoRNA maturation; part of holo-CPF subcomplex APT, which associates with 3'-ends of snoRNA- and mRNA-encoding genes; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia (1, 2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description RNA End Formation 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrIV:848599 to 850200 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All REF2 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for REF2
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 5 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
160 total interaction(s) for 61 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 115
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 3
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 10

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 4
  • Negative Genetic: 5
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 2
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 11
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 533
Molecular Weight (Da) 59,818
Isoelectric Point (pI) 10.43
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrIV:848599 to 850200 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1602 848599..850200 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000002603

REF2 encodes a nucleic acid-binding protein required for the polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs to normal lengths, and for snoRNA 3'-end maturation (2, 5). Ref2p also participates in mRNA 3'-end maturation prior to the final polyadenylation step (1), and may act as a negative regulator of poly(A) synthesis (5). Ref2p is a component of a large cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF)-containing complex (holo-CPF), and is important for recruiting Glc7p and Swd2p to the holo-CPF complex (3). Ref2p is also a component of a holo-CPF subcomplex named APT, for Associated with PTa1p, which primarily associates with the 3'-ends of mRNA-encoding genes and with snoRNA genes, and may be important for preventing readthrough-dependent expression of downstream genes (3).

REF2 is essential for viability in some strain backgrounds (2), and is required for normal growth but not for viability in others, in which ref2 mutants display reduced colony size and vegetative growth rate, abnormal morphologies, and multiple buds (1). ref2 mutants also contain pre-mRNAs with poly(A) tail lengths longer than those produced by wild-type (5).

Last updated: 2005-09-29 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for REF2
1) Russnak R, et al.  (1995) REF2 encodes an RNA-binding protein directly involved in yeast mRNA 3'-end formation. Mol Cell Biol 15(3):1689-97
2) Dheur S, et al.  (2003) Pti1p and Ref2p found in association with the mRNA 3' end formation complex direct snoRNA maturation. EMBO J 22(11):2831-40
3) Nedea E, et al.  (2003) Organization and function of APT, a subcomplex of the yeast cleavage and polyadenylation factor involved in the formation of mRNA and small nucleolar RNA 3'-ends. J Biol Chem 278(35):33000-10
4) Ghosh Dastidar R, et al.  (2012) The nuclear localization of SWI/SNF proteins is subjected to oxygen regulation. Cell Biosci 2(1):30
5) Mangus DA, et al.  (2004) Identification of factors regulating poly(A) tail synthesis and maturation. Mol Cell Biol 24(10):4196-206